1 expert testimony 专家证言(不一定专家与证言对号)
2 statistics 统计数计法(不要老用very, 数据不一定正确，但要真是、合理、适中)
3 example 举例法
②身边事例(For example, Here is an example, I got from sb./sth.+定语从句，which works quite well in this case)
③举例万能公式： if + if not + so---à增加文章长度
4 personal experience 个人经历(谢积极经历而非消极经历)
5 logic and reasoning 逻辑推理法
① why (分析问题段)： R1; R2 + E; R3. 或 R1 +权威事例; R2+ 身边事例
② How (解决问题段) 宏观观点+ 他人观点 + 自己观点
6 known facts 常识法
7 analogy 类比法
1 there be 结构: ① 时态变化 ② 单复数变化(就近原则)
There is(was) a concert last night.
There are(is an ) English book, a dictionary and some(+other ) books on the desk.
(2) There are many people (+who ) like to go to movies. There were many friends (+who )visited our school.
(1)词的否定： need 和 have 的否定:
①needn’t / haven’t ② don’t need to/ don’t have to ③ have no
(2) 否定转移 ：与思维、大脑有关的动词需要用否定转移
(3) 部分否定： 指all, both, every与not 构成的成分
——I don't(x) remember (not) all the details.
全部否定： 指肯定式的谓语动词+ 否定意义的词(rare, scare, seldom, never, neither, none, hardly, barely)
——I have never seen such things before.
(4) 双重否定： 其功能表①肯定 ② 加强语气
She is too sensitive not to notice that.
by no means (句中) in no way (句尾)
in no wise (句尾) on no account (句首，且倒装)
eg: The problems are by no means difficult to solve.
On no account are you to cheat in the coming exams.
The situation is serious in no wise.(=is not serious)
at all by many means
in any way in the least
eg: I am not tired in the least.
(7)含有否定词不含否定意义: can’t but do sth.; can’t help doing
不含否定词但否定意义 ：free， fail to do, lack, short
eg: The climate in Shengyang is colder than (+that in )other cities.
Comparing ( Compared )with cars, train runs much faster.
C：句子的主要成分+the+比较级+of the two
—— He is more than a singer; he is a famous composer.
——A science is more than a large amount of information on some subject.
------I am more than sad to hear that.
------More than 70% of people are man.
——My secretary didn't attend the meeting because he was ill.
——I won't tell you about it since you've not interested.
——We went without him as he wasn't ready in time.
--In that he is very busy, he feels unable to do it.
-She didn't get the job on the ground that she was young.
-Not that I don't like the novel, but that I have no time for it.
—Everyone work hard, so that the work was finished ahead of achedule.
-I was asleep, with the result that I didn't heat the telephone.
-He studied hard, so he passed the exam.
—前因后果 : lead to, contribute to
—前果后因: credit to, attribute to
—混合因果: be bound up with, be associated with,
5 目的结构: with the purpose of
—— Winter had gone and spring is here.
——Not only is he himself interested in the subject but also his son is beginning to show an interest in it.
—— We had to cope with the action from the enemy as well as the shortage of food, clothing , and almost everything.
8 It 句型结构
(1) lt+be+名词/形容词 +(for+名词/代词) + 动词不定式
Nice , difficult, interesting, essential, important, easy, hard, possible, useful, lovely, wonderful, pleasant 等。
(2) It+be+形容词 +of+名词/代词+动词不定式
Foolish, good, kind, nice, polite, rude, wise, wrong, modest, considerate, bold, generous, selfish, careful 等。
•—— I hope people can realize the urgency to solve this problem as soon as possible, (陈述句)
—— I do hope people can realize the urgency to solve this problem as soon as possible, (强调句)
• 主语+谓语 •Jim laughs.
• 主语+系动词+表语 •Mary looks ill.
• 主语+谓语+宾语 •The girl likes ice cream.
• 主语+谓语+直接宾语+间接宾语 •My sister sent me a beautiful dress.
•主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 •I heard someone screaming.
(2) ——I now announce my decision.
•—I, who am a senior of the English department, now announce my decision that I will run for the chairman of the student union.
•——Every time Mary is going to have a journey, she doesn't know what clothes she should take.
——Every time Mary is going to have a journey, she doesn't know what clothes should be taken.
•——We should pay more attention to the elderly who had devoted their youth and energy to our country.
——More attention should be paid to the elderly who had devoted their youth and energy to our country.