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甘肃专升本公共课英语词汇及常见搭配例题重点

2019年07月22日来源:甘肃专升本网作者:张小本 编辑:张小本 浏览:000挑错 投稿

甘肃专升本公共课英语考试大纲要求考生掌握约3000个基础英语单词和相应的常用词组。

以下是词汇考试常见的单词和词组搭配。

构词法

英语的构词方法有三:合成(composition),派生(derivation)和转换(conversion)。

一、合成

合成:合两个或两个以上的词而成为一个新词,这种构词的方法叫做合成。

1. 复合名词的主要构成方式

1)名词+名词

classroom 教室, newspaper 报纸

2)形容词+名词

blackboard 黑板,highway 公路,

3)动词+名词

break-water防波堤

4)副词+名词

outbreak爆发, overcoat 大衣

5)代词+名词

he-goat公山羊, she-wolf 母狼

6)动词+副词

break-down崩溃

7)名词+介词短语

editor-in-chief 总编辑, father-in-law岳父

2. 复合形容词的主要构成方式

1)名词+形容词

snow-white 雪白的,world-wide全世界的

2)形容词+形容词

bitter-sweet 又苦又甜的,blue-green 绿里发蓝的

3)副词+形容词

ever-green 常绿的

4)名词+分词

snow-covered 白雪盖着的,hand-made 手工制作的

5)形容词+分词

good-looking 好看的

6)副词+分词

well-meaning 好意的,well-informed消息灵通的

7)形容词+名词

second-hand旧的,用过的,第二手的

8)形容词+名词+-ed

open-minded 胸襟开阔的,white-haired白发的

9)数词+名词+(-ed)

two-faced 两面派的,

3. 复合动词的主要构成方式

1)副词+动词

overcome 克服, uphold支持,主张

2)名词+动词

sun-bathe行日光浴

二、派生

在一个单词前或后加上一个词缀,变成一个新词,这种构词的方法叫做派生,词缀有前缀和后缀两种,加在单词前的词缀,叫前缀,加在单词后的词缀,叫后缀。

1.前缀  现将最常用的一些前缀(按字母顺序)举例如下:

anti- 反对

anti-Japanese war抗日战争

arch- 主要的

arch-enemy 主要敌人

auto- 自动的

automobile 小汽车,  autobiography自传

bi- 双

bicycle 自行车,bilingual 用两种语言的

by- 在旁

bystander 旁观者,by-product副产品

co- 共同

co-operation合作,co-existence 共处

counter- 反

counter-attack 反攻,

de- 除去,否定

decentralization分散,不集中

dis- 否定

discover发现, disorder混乱,杂乱

en-, em- 使成为

enable使能够,enslave奴役,encourage鼓励

ex- 前

ex-president前任主席、总统或大学校长

extra- 外

extraordinary非常的,格外的

for-, fore- 先,前,预

forward向前,foresee预见,forearm前臂

for- 禁,弃

forbid禁止,forget忘记

in-, il-, im-, ir- 不,非

informal 非正式的,incomplete不完全的, irregular不规则的

inter- 间,相互

interview会见

mal- 恶

maltreat 虐待

micro- 微

microscope显微镜

mid- 中

mid-night半夜, mid-autumn中秋的

mis- 误

misunderstand 误会, misuse误用

multi- 多

multi-national 多民族的

non- 非,不

nonexistent不存在的

post- 后于

post-war 战后的,

pre- 先于

pre-war 战前的

pro- 赞成,亲善

pro-American 亲美的

re- 重,再,复

review 复习

sub- 下,次

subdivide细分,再分

super- 上,超

super-structure 上层建筑

tele- 远

telephone 电话,telescope望远镜,television电视

trans- 横过,转移

transformation改造,translate翻译

un- 不

unable不能的,unimportant不重要的,untrue不真实的

uni- 一、单

uniform 划一的

2.名词后缀

-age状态,集合

marriage婚姻,shortage缺少,village村庄

-an 人

American美国人,Italian意大利人,意大利语,African非洲人

-ance, -ancy性质,状态

importance重要性,significance意义

-ant, -ent 人

assistant助手,助教, student学生

-ation, -ition 动作,状态

determination决心,industrialization工业化,preparation准备

-craft 技巧,工艺

handicraft手工艺

-dom (状态,领界)

freedom自由,kingdom王国

-ee (被动)

employee雇员

-eer 人

engineer工程师, volunteer志愿者

-ence, -ency(抽象名词)

dependence依靠,不独立,excellence卓越

-er 人,动作者

fighter战士,worker工人,writer作家,harvester收割机

-ese 人,语言

Chinese中国人,中文,Japanese日本人,日文

-ess 女性

actress女演员,princess公主,hostess女主人,女乘务员(飞机上)

-ful 充满

handful一把,armful一抱(这些词亦可作为复合词看)

-hood 身份,境遇,状态

childhood童年,likelihood可能性

-ian 人

musician音乐家,technician技术员

-ity (抽象名词)

possibility可能性,capability能力

-man 人

Englishman英国人,postman邮递员(这些词亦可作为复合词看)

-ment 运动,结果

movement运动,development发展

-ness 状态,性质

kindness和善,carefulness小心

-or 人,动作者

actor男演员, editor 编辑,tractor拖拉机

-ry, -ery 行为,工作,性质,工作地点,货物种类,境遇等

bravery勇敢,nursery托儿所,cookery烹调

-ship 状态,身分

friendship友谊,hardship苦难

-tion 动作,状态

attention注意,action行动,revolution革命

-ty (抽象名词)

cruelty残酷, loyalty忠实

-ure 结果,动作

pleasure快乐,pressure压力

3.形容词后缀

-able,-ible能够

unforgettable难忘的,responsible负责的

-al 的

cultural文化的,national国家的

-an (地,人)的

Russian 俄罗斯的,俄罗斯人的,American美国的,美国人的

-ed 有,象

talented有才华的

-en 的

golden金色的,wooden木制的

-ern (表示方向的)

northern北方的,eastern东方的,southern南方的,western西方的

-ese (地,人)的

Chinese中国的,中国人的,Japanese日本的,日本人的

-ful 充满

careful小心的,beautiful美丽的,powerful强有力的

-ic, -ical 的

economic经济的,political政治的,grammatical语法的

-ish 属于,稍微

bookish书本气的,yellowish稍黄的,selfish自私的,childish幼稚的

-ive 性,倾向

active 积极的, collective集体的

-less 无

fearless无所畏惧的,careless不小心的,useless无用的,meaningless无意义的

-like 如

childlike儿童般的(亦可作为复合词看)

-ly 品质,的

friendly友好的,weekly每星期的,manly丈夫气的,daily每天的

-ous 多

nervous神经紧张的,dangerous危险的

-some 引起,适于,易于

troublesome烦人的,tiresome(令人感到厌倦的)

-ward 向

backward落后的

-y 充满,性质

rainy雨的,snowy雪的,handy手巧的,便于使用的

4.动词后缀

-ate

isolate使孤立,

-en

deepen加深,strengthen加强

-fy

simplify简化,classify分类

-ize, -ise

industrialize工业化

5. 副词后缀

-ly

carefully小心地,beautifully美丽地,quickly迅速地

-ward, -wards向

forward向前,backward向后,upwards向上,downwards向下

-wise 方式

likewise同样地,otherwise否则,用另一种方式

三、转换

转换 将一个单词由某一种词类转用为另一种词类,这就叫做转换。单词转换后的意义往往与未转换前的意义有密切的联系。

1.名词转化为动词

elbow 由“肘”转义为“用肘推挤”

back 由“背,后面”转义为“支持,后退”

2.形容词转化为动词

slow 由“慢”转义为“放慢”

3.动词转化为名词

to take a walk 散步

to have a look 看一看

to have a try  试一试

4.形容词转化为名词

the wounded 受伤的人们, the beautiful美丽的东西,the blind盲人们

5.其他词类转化为名词

a must必须做的事情,ups and downs高低起伏,ins and outs问题的底细

典型例题

考试的重点是词汇之间的搭配,和近义词之间的区别。

1. Driving a car is not as difficult as you imagine, if you ________ the rules.

A. depend on B. turn to C. put up D. stick to

depend on 依靠、依赖

turn to 转向某人,turn to sb.向某人求助

put up with 容忍、忍受

stick to 遵守

答案 D

2. In my opinion, the changing job market will ______ people many difficulties.

A. find B. bring C. take D. get

find 找到

bring 带来

take 拿走

get 得到

答案 B

3. Since the two restaurants ________ almost the same food and service, it doesn't matter where you stop to eat.

A. offer B. cook C. prepare D. afford

offer 提供

cook 烹饪

prepare 准备

afford 付钱

答案 A

4. When he applied for a _______ in the office of the local newspaper, he was told to see the manager.

A. profession B. position C. career D. location

profession职业

position 职位

career 职业

location 方位

She chose an academic career. 答案 B

5. Margaret was so ________ for news of her lost child that she was almost driven mad.

A. careful B. responsible C. thirsty D. hostile

careful 仔细的

responsible 负责的

thirsty 极度渴望的

hostile 敌意的

答案 C

6. It is not polite to ________ when someone is making a speech at a meeting like this.

A. turn up B. cut in C. speak out D. stand by

turn up 来到,露面

cut in 打断

speak out 大声说

stand by 站到……旁边

答案 B

7. The boss _______ angry when I spoke to him on the phone.

A. sounded B. looked C. grew D. talked

sounded 听起来 looked 看起来 grew 变得 talked 谈话 答案 A

8. All of her living cost ________2,000 yuan each month.

A. gets to B. equals to C. arrives at D. comes at

get to 到达某地

equal的用法:

equal: adj. be equal to sth./doing sth. 对某事有力量,勇气,能力等, 能胜任

eg. She feels equal to the task. 她认为能胜任该项工作。

He's equal to the occasion. 他能应付这一局面。

He doesn't seems equal to meeting out demance

equal: v. equal sb./ sth. (in sth.) 与某人(某事物)相同或相等

eg. He is equaled by no one in kindness. 没有人比他更善良。)

arrived at+地点状语 到达某处

comes at 达到

答案 D

9. Her face is _________ to me, but I can't remember where I saw her.

A. similar B. friendly C. alike D. familiar

similar 相似的 friendly 友好的 alike 相像的

familiar 熟悉的 答案 D

10. Jump in the car. There's enough ________ for you.

A. place B. seat C. room D. space

place 地方 seat 座位 room 空间 space 宇宙空间 place 指具体地点 答案 C

11. It wasn't an accident. He did it on ________.

A. reason B. determination C. purpose D. intention

reason 原因 determination 决心 on purpose 故意 intention 目的 答案 C

12. You'll have to pay for the holiday in _______, I'm afraid.

A. front B. advance C. ahead D. forward

front 具体位置空间的前方 in advance 提前 ahead 在……之前,不和in 连用

forward 向前 答案 B

13. The bookstore hasn't ordered ________ textbooks for all the students in the course.

A. enough B. plenty C. as much as D. a great deal of

enough 修饰名词,在名词之前

plenty+of as much as 不能修饰名词

a great deal of 修饰不可数名词。 答案 A

14. As I didn't have any experience, I was ________ problems.

A. likely to have B. probably having

C. probable to have D. likely having

be likely to do 很可能有……

probably 不接doing接to do

it's brobable for sb. that

答案 A

15. David may ________ , but we must go at once.

A. stay late B. stay lately C. stay a little D. have stayed very late

stay late

stay lately lately 近来 答案 A

16. I don't think that your watch is _______.

A. worth of the price B. worth the price

C. worthy of the price D. worthy to buy

worthy: adj. a. be worthy of sth.

eg. Her achievements are worthy of the highest praise. 她的成就值得给予最高奖赏。

b. be worthy to do sth.

eg. She said she was not worthy to accept the honour they had offered her.

worth: adj. a. be worth + n.

eg. Our house is worth about $ 60,000.

b. be worth doing

eg. The book is worth reading. =It's worth reading the book.

n. 值某金额的量 The thieves stole $ 1 million worth of jewellery.

D选项正确答案:worthy to be bought 答案 B

17. _________, it's very tidy.

A. As her room is small B. Small as her room is

C. As small her room is D. Small as her room

as引导让步状语从句,句子需要倒状。Young as he is, Jack is already familiar with most of the books 答案 B

18. As _______ as possible he opened the door and went out into the cold December night.

A. quiet B. quietly C. quite D. quietly

quiet adj.安静的 答案 B

quite adv.十分,很;quite big

19. I felt thoroughly ________ in the crowded Manhattan.

A. wondered B. lost C. missed D. separated

wondered 怀疑 lost 迷路 missed 丢失 separated 分开 答案 B

20. The city has decided to _______ all the old buildings.

A. break away from B. get rid of C. come up with D. knock down

break away from 1.挣脱 The prisoner broke away from his guards. 2. 脱离某政党、政府等 A province has broken away to form a new state.

get rid of: 摆脱 The shop ordered 20 copies of the book and now it can't get rid of them.

come up with sth.: 找到或提出(答案、办法等)She came up with a new idea for increasing sales.

knock down: 拆除 These old houses are going to be knocked down. 答案 D

21. When the school master is away, Mr. Johnson will be ______ the whole school.

A. in charge of B. in favor of C. in honor of D. in regard to

in charge of: 处于控制或支配的地位, 负责

Who's in charge here?这儿谁负责?

He was left in charge of the shop while the manager was away.

in favor of sb./sth.: 支持某人/某事

Was he in favor of the death penalty?

in honor of : 出于对某人的敬意

a ceremony in honor of those killed in battle 为纪念阵亡将士举行的仪式

in/with regard to sb./sth. 关于某人/某事 I have nothing to say with/ in regard to your complaints. 答案 A

22. In his speech he _______ his experience as a teaching assistant.

A. returned to B. referred to C. stuck to D. turned to

return sth.(to sb./sth.): 归还,放回

She returned the bird to its cages. 她把鸟放回笼子里

Please return me my 5 yuan/ return my five yuan to me.

Refer to sb./sth.: 提到,说到或涉及到某人(某事物)

When I said some people are stupid, I wasn't referring to you.

Don't refer to this matter again, please. 请不要再提这件事。

stick to sth.: 坚持或维持某事物

“Would you like some wine?”

“No, I'll stick to beer, thanks.” 不,我还是喝啤酒吧。

turn to sb.(sth.): 向某人(某事物)寻求帮助

She has nobody she can turn to. 她求助无门。

The more depressed he got, the more he turned to drink. 答案 B

23. He tried his best in the first game, but was ________ by the little boy.

A. won B. hit C. beaten D. held

A:win-won-won; 赢得

B:hit 打

C:beat 打,

D: hold-held-held 举行 答案 C

24. I wanted to go home but my wife _______ on going to the concert.

A. persisted B. resisted C. insisted D. intended

persisted:persist: persist in doing sth. 坚持做某事

He will persist in riding that dreadful bicycle. resist+n 抵抗

intend: intend to do sth. 想要做…… 答案 C

25. The government gave several good ______ for increasing the tax on cigarettes.

A. purposes B. reasons C. questions D. problems

purpose 目的 reason 原因 question 问题 problem 问题 答案 B

26. Four people were seriously _______ in the accident.

A. injured B. damaged C. spoiled D. broken injure 受伤

damage: 表示使被损坏的对象失去或降低其自身价值, 但不完全毁掉。

He damaged my car with a stone.

ruin: 常强调完全毁掉。 The storm has ruined the garden.

spoil: 语气比ruin弱,不强调完全毁掉,表示使被害方失去其完美性。

He spoiled his painting by putting too much red paint on it.

spoil:有时也包含最终会导致完全毁掉之义。

He has spoiled his constitution with bad living. 答案 A

27. He spoke so quickly that I didn't ________ what he said.

A. listen B. catch C. miss D. receive

listen 听 listen to catch 抓住,听到 miss 丢失 receive 收到

28. He was poor but proud, and _______ every offer of help.

A. turned down B. turned on C. turned off D. turned out

turn down 拒绝 turn on 打开。turn on the light 开灯

turn off 关上。turn off the light turn out 证明为…… 答案 A

29. In Britain, the best season of the year is probably _______ spring.

A. later B. latter C. last D. late

later 以后。 latter 后者 last 最后 late 晚的 答案 D

30. How ________ is it from here to the city center?

A. long B. far C. distant D. near

how long 一段延续的时间

——How long have you studied English?

——I have studied English for 3 years (since 3 years ago)。答案 B

31. I wanted to go there by plane but I hadn't enough money to pay for the _____.

A. journey B. distance C. road D. way

journey 旅行 distance 距离 road 道路 way 方式方法 答案A

32. Her parents wouldn't _______ her to stay out later than 10:30 at night.

A. require B. ask C. encourage D. permit

stay out 不回家 require 要求 ask 要求 encourage 鼓励 permit 允许 答案 D

33. Last Sunday, ________ my great surprise, I met Bullen in town.

A. for B. to C. as D. at

(to one's surprise 使某人感到惊奇) 答案 B

34. Most Chinese like to drink tea. But some prefer coffee ________ tea.

A. to B. with C. for D. against

prefer……to…… 答案 A

35. I'm in no ________ this evening to listen to his silly jokes.

A. feeling B. attitude C. opinion D. mood

feeling 感情 attitude 态度 opinion 观点 mood 情绪 答案 D

36. Tennis is a _________ invented by an Englishman a hundred years ago.

A. play B. match C. game D. event

play: n. 比赛,竞赛 The tennis players need total concentration during play.

match 比赛 game 运动 event 事件 答案 C

37. That's the biggest ______ he has ever told in his life.

A. talk B. speech C. lesson D. lie

talk:give/have a talk 谈话

speech:make/deliver a speech 做演讲

lesson:teach a lesson: 教训

learn one's lesson: 汲取教训

lie:tell a lie

答案 D

38. _______ that the jewels had been stolen by one of the guards.

A. It turned up B. It turned out C. It turned on D. It turned over

turn up: 露面, 来到 We arranged to meet at the cinema at 7: 30, but he failed to turn up.

turn out: turn out to be sb./sth.; turn out that…证明是某人(某物),原来是┄┄

She turned out to be a friend of my sister./ It turned out that she was a friend of my sister.

turn on 开灯

turn (sb./sth.) over: 翻身或翻转

She turned over and went to sleep.她转过身就睡着了。

答案 B

39. “I'm tired, but let's go.”

“Why _______ rest a while?”

A. let's B. not let's C. not D. let's not答案 C

40. “We won't be finished until tonight.”

“And they _______.”

A. will, either B. won't, too C. will, neither D. won't, either

答案 D

41. “________?”

“A cup of tea, please.”

A. Do you like tea B. Do you like a cup of tea C. Would you like a cup of tea D. What would you like to drink 答案 D

42. “Do you mind if I open the window?”

“________.” A. Sure, certainly not B. All right C. I don't know D. Not at all

答案 D

词汇考试重点

考生除在学习中扩大词汇量外,还应注意词语的搭配、近义词的区别以及由同一个词构成的不同词组之间意义的区别。

1. The news is _______ good to be true.

A. so…that B. much C. too D. very(答案 C)

2.Don't hesitate to _______ me if you are in trouble.

A. turn out B. turn in C. turn to D. turn up

turn out: a. 证明为 How did the party turn out? It turned out very well, thanks.

b. turn sb. out: 赶走某人 My landlord is turning me out at the end of the month.

turn in : a. 面朝内 b. go to bed .It's late. I think I'll turn in.

c. turn sb. in 将某人交给警方拘押。She threatened to turn him in.

turn to: turn to sb. 向某人寻求帮助 The child turned to his mother for comfort.

turn up: 露面 We arranaged to meet at the cinema at 7, but she failed to turn up.

近义词之间的区别在于词的内涵不同……如,汉语中的“错误”对应着英语中的mistake和fault, 但两个词的内涵不一样, mistake单纯指所犯的错误,而fault则侧重于追究责任。

There must be some mistakes in this bill; please add up the figures again.(add up 加起来)

Whose fault is it that we're late? 我们迟到是谁的错?(责任在谁)

有的近义词之间的区别在于词性不同或在句子中的用法不同。

1.He likes _______ questions in English classes.

A. to rise B. rising C. to raise D. to arise

rise 不及物动词;arise 不及物动词 呈现出现 A new difficulty has arisen. 出现了新困难。答案 C

2.I _________ have coffee than tea.

A. like more B. prefer C. had better D. would rather

prefer: prefer sth. to sth. 更喜欢某事物。 I prefer walking to cycling.

答案 D

3.Mary and Jane are twin sisters. They look exactly_________.

A. like B. same C. alike D. same ones

A的正确答案应该在后面加名词。答案 C

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