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阅读短文背单词 11-16

2022年09月28日来源:网络转载作者:网络转载 编辑:张老师 投稿

甘肃专升本公共课英语阅读短文背单词 11-16


Passage 11

Shyness is the cause of much unhappiness for a great many people. Shy people are anxious and self-conscious; that is, they are excessively concerned with their own appearance and actions. Worrisome thoughts are constantly occurring in their minds: what kind of impression am I making? Do they like me? Do I sound stupid? Am I wearing unattractive clothes?

It is obvious that such uncomfortable feelings must negatively affect people. A person’s conception of himself or herself is reflected in the way he or she behaves, and the way a person behaves affects other people’s reactions. In general, the way people think about themselves has a profound effect on all areas of their lives.

Shy people, having low self-esteem, are likely to be passive and easily influenced by others. They need reassurance that they are doing “the right thing.” Shy people are very sensitive to criticism; they feel it confirms their feelings of inferiority. They also find it difficult to be pleased by compliment with a statement like this one, “You’re just saying that to make me feel good. I know it’s not true.” It is clear that while self-awareness is a healthy quality, overdoing it is harmful.

Can shyness be completely eliminated, or at least reduced? Fortunately, people can overcome shyness with determined and patient efforts in building self-confidence. Since shyness goes hand in hand with a lack of self-esteems, it is important for people to accept their weakness as well as their strengths.

Each one of us is a unique, worthwhile individual, interested in our own personal ways. The better we understand ourselves, the easier it becomes to live up to our full potential. Let’s not allow shyness to block our chances for a rich and fulfilling life.

译文:

羞怯是许多人不快乐的原因。害羞的人焦虑不安,自我意识强,也就是说,他们过分在意自己的形象和行为。脑海中不断盘旋着一些使自己不安的想法:我给人留下了什么印象?他们喜欢我吗?我讲话是不是傻里傻气?我穿的衣服毫不引人注目?

显而易见,这种不安的感觉必然对人产生不利的影响。一个人的自我看法反映在他或她的行为上,而一个人的行为方式又会影响他人的反应。通常,人们如何看待自己对他们生活的各个方面都会产生深刻的影响。

羞怯的人非常自卑,往往消极被动,容易受他人的影响。他们(是否)在做“该做的事情”需要得到别人的肯定。羞怯的人对批评很敏感,他们认为批评正好证实了他们比别人差。他们发现自己很难因为受到表扬而高兴,因为他们总是这么说:“你这么说是为了让我感觉好一些。我知道那不是真的。”显然,尽管自我意识是一种健康的品质,过分就有害了。

能否彻底消除或是减轻羞怯感呢?幸运的是,人们可以通过坚持不懈的努力建立自信,从而克服羞怯。由于羞怯与缺少自尊是密切相关的,那么正视自己的弱点和正视自己的优点一样重要。

我们每个人都是独一无二、有价值的个体。我们自有吸引人的地方。我们对自己了解越多,就越容易充分发挥自己的潜能。不要让羞怯成为妨碍我们拥有丰富和成功生活的绊脚石。

Passage 12

In the United States, it is not customary to telephone someone very early in the morning. If you telephone him early in the day, while he is shaving or having breakfast, the time of the call shows that the matter is very important and requires immediate attention. The same meaning is attached to telephone calls made after 11:00 p.m. If someone receives a call during sleeping hours, he assumes it’s a matter of life or death. The time chosen for the call communicates its importance. In social life, time plays a very important part. In the U.S.A. guests tend to feel they are not highly regarded if the invitation to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date. But it is not true in all countries. In other areas of the world, it may be considered foolish to make an appointment too far in advance because plans which are made for a date more than a week away tend to be forgotten. The meaning of time differs in different parts of the world. Thus, misunderstandings arise between people from different cultures that treat time differently. Promptness is valued highly in American life, for example. If people are not prompt, they may be regarded as impolite or not fully responsible. In the U.S. no one would think of keeping a business associate waiting for an hour, it would be too impolite. A person who is 5 minutes late, will say a few words of explanation, though perhaps he will not complete the sentence.

译文:

在美国,一般不习惯每天很早打电话给某个人。如果你很早打电话给他,在他刮胡子或吃早饭的时候,那就说明这件事情非常重要,需要立刻处理。晚上十一点以后打电话也是同样的意思。如果一个人在睡觉的时候接到电话,那他肯定觉得这是一件生死攸关的大事。选择打电话的时间表达了事情的重要程度。在社交生活中,时间是起着非常重要的作用。在美国,如果在宴会三四天前才受到邀请,那受邀者就会认为自己不是很受重视。但并不是在所有的国家都如此。在世界上的其它地方,提前很长时间来预约被认为是很愚蠢的,因为提前一个星期预约的事情很容易被忘记。所以时间的含义在不同的地方是不一样的。因此,来自时间文化不同背景的人之间就会产生误会。例如,准时在美国社会是受到高度认可的。如果你不准时,就会被认为不礼貌或不够负责任。在美国,没有一个人会让一个商务伙伴等待一小时,这样做太不礼貌了。一个人如果迟到五分钟,就要做出解释,尽管他可能还没说完,大家就原谅他了。

Passage 13

There are three kinds of goals: short-term, medium-range and long-term goals.

Short-term goals are those that usually deal with current activities, which we can apply on a daily basis. Such goals can be achieved in a week or less, or two weeks, or possibly, months. It should be remembered that just as a building is no stronger than its foundation, long-term goals cannot amount to very much without the achievement of solid short-term goals. Upon completing our short-term goals, we should date the occasion and then add new short-term goals that will build on those that have been completed.

The intermediate goals build on the foundation of the short-term goals. They might deal with just one term of school or the entire school year, or they could even extend for several years. Any time you move a step at a time, you should never allow yourself to become discouraged or overwhelmed. As you complete each step, you will enforce the belief in your ability to grow and succeed. And as your list of completion dates grow, your motivation and desire will increase.

Long-term goals may be related to our dreams of the future. They might cover five years or more. Life is not a static thing. We should never allow a long-term goal to limit us or our course of action.

译文:

目标有三种:短期目标,中期目标和长期目标。

短期目标通常是指以每天为基础,处理当前任务的目标。短期目标可以在一星期左右,两星期,或者几个月内完成。我们必须记住,正如只有地基牢靠,建筑物才坚固一样,长期目标如果脱离了扎实的短期目标的实现是不可能实现的。我们一完成短期目标,应该记下完成日期,然后在已完成的短期目标的基础上添加新的短期目标。

中期目标是建立在短期目标的基础上。可以在一个学期或一个学年内完成,或者延长至几年完成。每次你向目标前进了一步,都不要让自己感到没有信心或者压力重重。你每完成一个目标,就会增加成功的信心。并且随着你完成目标的日期越来越近,你对成功的动机和渴望就越强烈。

长期目标是与我们未来的梦想有关的。通常都是在五年内或更长的时间内完成。但是生活不是一成不变的。我们不能让长期目标限制我们或我们的行为。

Passage 14

What makes a person a scientist? Does he have ways or tools of learning that are different from those of others? The answer is “no”. It is not the tools a scientist uses but how he uses these tools that make him a scientist. You will probably agree that knowing how to use a power is important to a carpenter. You will probably agree, too, that knowing how to investigate, how to discover information, is important to everyone. The scientist, however, goes one step further, he must be sure that he has a reasonable answer to his questions and that his answer can be confirmed by other persons. He also works to fit the answer he gets to many questions into a large set of ideas about how the world works.

The scientist’s knowledge must be exact. There is no room for half right or right just half the time. He must be as nearly right as the conditions permit. What works under one set of conditions at one time must work under the same conditions at other times. If the conditions are different, any changes the scientist observes in a demonstration must be explained by the changes in the conditions. This is one reason that investigations are important in science. Albert Einstein, who developed the theory of relativity, arrived at this theory through mathematics. The accuracy of this mathematics was later tested through investigations, Einstein’s ideas were shown to be correct. A scientist uses many tools for measurements. Then the measurements are used to make mathematical calculations that may test his investigations.

译文:

是什么使一个普通人成为科学家?他有与众不同的学习方法和工具吗?答案是否定的。不是因为科学家使用的工具,而是因为他使用工具的方法使得他成为科学家。你也许认同怎么用力对一名木匠来说很重要。你也许也认同如何研究调查,如何发现信息对每个人来说都很重要。然而,科学家比这更进一步,他必须确定对自己的问题给出了一个合理的答案,并且他的答案通过别人也可以得到证实。同时,他还要让自己得出的许多答案符合关于世界如何运作的理论之中。

科学家的知识必须是精确的。不能出现半对半错或者只对一半的情况。他必须在条件允许的情况下尽可能正确。在某个时间某个条件下成立的理论或公式必须在其他时间相同的条件下都能成立。如果条件发生了变化,科学家在证明过程中观察到的任何变化都必须由条件的变化来解释。这就是调查在科学研究中十分重要的一个理由。爱因斯坦通过数学方法提出了相对论。其数学方法的正确性被后人的调查研究所证实,从而证明该理论是正确的。一个科学家会用很多方法来进行调查研究。然后用数学来计算这些结果,从而测试这些调查结果是否正确。

Passage 15

Many people who work in London prefer to live outside it, and to go in to their offices or schools every day by train, car or bus, even though this means they have to get up early in the morning and reach home late in the evening.

One advantage of living outside London is that houses are cheaper. Even a small flat in London without a garden costs quite a lot to rent. With the same money, one can get a little house in the country with a garden of one’s own.

Then, in the country one can really get away from the noise and hurry of busy working lives. Even though one has to get up earlier and spend more time in trains or buses, one can sleep better at night and during weekends and on summer evenings, one can enjoy the fresh, clean air of the country. If one likes gardens, one can spend one’s free time digging, planting, watering and doing the hundred and one other jobs which are needed in a garden. Then, when the flowers and vegetables come up, one has got the reward together with those who have shared the secret of Nature.

Some people, however, take no interest in country things: for them, happiness lies in the town, with its cinemas and theatres, beautiful shops and busy streets, dance-halls and restaurants. Such people would feel that their life was not worth living if they had to live it outside London. An occasional walk in one of the parks and a fortnight’s (two weeks) visit to the sea every summer is all the country they want: the rest they are quite prepared to leave to those who are glad to get away from London every night.

译文:

很多在伦敦工作的人喜欢住在伦敦郊外,喜欢每天乘火车、汽车或公交车去上班或上学。尽管这意味着他们不得不早出晚归。

住在伦敦郊外的一个好处就是房子便宜。在伦敦即使是没有花园的小公寓也需要一笔不菲的租金,而用同样的钱,你可以在郊区买一个带花园的小房子了。

然后,在乡村你可以远离喧嚣、忙碌的工作生活。尽管你不得不早起,花很多的时间来乘火车或公交车,但是你可以在晚上睡得更好。在周末和夏季的夜晚,你可以享受乡村清新干净的空气。如果你喜欢花园,你可以在花园里干一些像挖土、种植、浇水等许多园艺活。然后当鲜花和蔬菜生长起来的时候,你就与其他分享大自然秘密的人们一起得到了奖赏。

但是,有些人对乡村并不感兴趣。对他们来说,幸福就在市区里,那里有电影院、剧院、漂亮的商店、繁忙的街道、舞厅和饭店。如果必须得住在伦敦郊外的话,这些人就觉得生活没有任何意义。(对于那些热爱都市生活的人来说)他们所需要的乡村生活,就是偶尔去公园散步,每个夏天去海边过上两个星期。其他跟乡村有关的东西,就让那些每天晚上都急于离开伦敦的人们(住在郊外的人们)去享受吧。

Passage 16

The United States covers a large part of the North American continent. Its neighbors are Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. Although the United States is a big country, it is not the largest in the world. In 2000, its population was over 222 million.

When this land first became a nation, after winning its independence from England, it had thirteen states. Each of the states was represented on the American flag by a star. All these states were in the eastern part of the continent. As the nation grew toward the west, new states were added and new stars appeared on the flag. For a long time, there were 48 stars. In 1959, however, two more stars were added to the flag, representing the new states of Alaska and Hawaii.

Indians were the first people of the land which is now the United States. There are still many thousands of Indians now living in all parts of the country. Sometimes it is said that the Indians are “the only real Americans”. Most Americans come from all over the world. Those who first come in greatest numbers to make their homes on the eastern coast of North America were mostly from England. It is for that reason that the language of the United States is English and that its culture and customs are more like those of England than those of any other country in the world.

译文:

美国占北美大陆很大一部分土地。它北邻加拿大,南接墨西哥。虽然美国是一个大国,但它不是世界上最大的。在2000年,它的人口超过2.22亿。

这片土地刚从英国独立出来,第一次成为一个国家的时候,只有十三个州,每个周在美国国旗上由一颗星来代表。这些州都在东部。当这个国家不断向西扩大,就增加了新的州,同时它们也出现在国旗上。很长一段时间,美国有48个州,可是,到1959年,国旗上又多了两颗星,分别代表阿拉斯加和夏威夷。

印第安人是如今叫做美国的这块土地上的最初居民。现在在全国各地仍然居住着许多这些原始居民的后裔。有时人们说印第安人才是“真正的美国人”。不过,大部分美国人是来自世界各地。那些最早大批来到北美东海岸建立家园的人大部分来自英格兰,也是由于这个原因,美国的国语为英语,而它的文化习俗也与英国的更为相像。

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